Online ISSN 2313-1519
Print    ISSN 1812-2892
Abstract - Prevalence of elevated levels of homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis
Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Bulan Marchellia Wijaya, Esdras Ardi Pramudita, Nining Sri Wuryaningsih, Purwoadi Sujatno


Background: Chronic kidney disease is a disease with kidney damage of more than 3 months. Chronic kidney disease has five stages, in which in the fifth stage the patient requires renal replacement therapy. Hemodialysis replaces kidney function to get rid of waste substances, this process can also reduce the substances that the body may still need such as vitamins that can be wasted. Even the metabolism in the body will be disrupted, one of which causes the balance of homocysteine ​​metabolism to be disrupted. This causes homocysteine ​​levels to increase in the plasma.
Objectives: To measure the prevalence of elevated homocysteine ​​levels (hyperomocysteinemia) in patients with chronic kidney disease who undergo hemodialysis.
Methods and subjects: This is a cross sectional study with number of respondents in this study amounted to 91 people who all had chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis at Bethesda Hospital and Panti Rapih Hospital in Yogyakarta. The selection of subjects used the consecutive sampling method. The data analysis used is univariate analysis.
Results: Of the total 91 subjects with chronic kidney who undergo hemodialysis, 28.6% of them were elderly patients with an average age of 51.78 years, with men 59 subjects (64.8%) and women 32 subjects (35.2%). In all subjects got a history of hypertension and anemia 78 respondents (85.7%), diabetes 31 subjects (34.1%) and cancer 1 subjects (1.1%). The prevalence of subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia was 80 subjects (87.9%) and 11 were not (12.1%). In hyperhomocysteinemia patients (freq=80), 23 of them were elderly patients (88.5%), with men 55 subjects (93.2%) and women 25 subjects (78.1%). The history of the disease patients with hyperhomocysteinemia is anemia and hypertension 69 respondents (88.5%), diabetes 28 subjects (90.3%) and cancer 1 subject (100%).
Conclusion: The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis is 87.9%.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease, homocysteine, hyperhomocysteinemia

Corresponding Author: Rizaldy Taslim Pinzon, Neurology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Duta Wacana Christian University, Dr. Wahidin Sudirohusodo 5-25, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. E-mail:



1. Afeaje B Olokor, Ikechukwu L.O., Peter F Ugbodaga. Hyperhomocysteinemia in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. British Journal of Medicine & Medical Reasearch.  2016; 18(9):1-7.

2. Friedman A.N., Bostom A.G., Selhub J., Levey A.S., Rosenberg I.H. The Kidney and homocysteine metabolism. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001; 12:2181-2189.

3. Dinavahi R., Falkner B. Relationship of homocysteine with cardiovascular disease and blood pressure. J Clin Hypertens. 2004; 6(9): 494-8.

4. Hill N.R, Fatoba S.T, Oke J.L. Global Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease - A systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Plos One. 2016; 11:e0158765.

5. Kelly C., Jaime L. The Netter Collection of Medical Illustrations: Urinary System, the Second edition. Saunders: Elsevier 2012. Available from:  [Accessed 28 Agustus 2018].

6. Kennedy F., Fred Ferri. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia: Elsevier 2018. Available from:  [Accessed 28 Agustus 2018].

7. Manns B., Hyndman E., Burgess E, et al. Oral Vitamin B12 and High-Dose Folic Acid in Hemodialyss patient with Hyper-homocyst(e)inemia. Kidney International. 2001; (59):1103-1109.

8. Menon Vandana, Wang Xuelei, Greene Tom, et al. Homocysteine in Chronic Kidney disease : Effect of low protein diet and repletion with B vitamins. Kidney International. 2005; 67:1539-1546.

9. Sulistiowati E., Idaiani S. Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Cross-Sectional Analysis Baseline Cohort Study Non-Communicable Disease at Population 25-65 years old in Kebon Kelapa, Bogor 2011. Jakarta: Pusat Teknologi Terapan Kesahatan dan Epidemologi Klinik; 2015.

10. Stanley M.D, James C., Veith F., et al. Current therapy in vascular and endovascular surgery. Philadelpia: Elsevier 2014. Available from:  [Accessed 28 Agustus 2018].


Volume 3, Number 53 (2019)